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Ramadan, the month of Qur'aan

RAMADAN, THE MONTH OF QURAN

Before it came to be known as the month of Fasting, the companions of the Prophet knew Ramadan as a month of the Quran, the last and ever lasting divine guidance to humanity. "The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the Criterion (between right and wrong). So, whoever of you sights the month, he/she must observe fasts that month and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not observe fasts must be made up) from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and he does not want to make things difficult for you. He wants that you must complete the same number of days and that you must glorify Allah for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him." (2:184).

The revelation began in the month of Ramadan. The night in which the Quran began to be revealed is referred in the Quran as the blessed night: We sent it (the Quran) down on a blessed night, (44:2) or the night of Decree, Verily, we have sent it (this Quran) down in the Night of Al-Qadr. (97:1). It was the strength, clarity, simplicity, and universality of the message that the night was described as an extraordinary night.

With its 6332 ayas (sentences) spread in 114 suras (chapters) divided in seven stages and 30 parts, the Quran was finalized and compiled in the life time of the Prophet ﷺ who alone among human beings knew what it was. Only the Prophet could testify, verify and approve what the Quran consisted of as no other human being in his time shared that experience. He put his seal of approval on the finality of the divine message and gave his instructions on its arrangement. The Prophet ﷺ ensured that every verse revealed to him was recorded and written at the time of its revelation.

It is also mentioned in Masnad Ahmed, Sunan Abi Dawood, Sunan Nasai, Jami Tirmdhi, Ibn Habban, and Musdark Hakim that Usman bin Affan, the third Caliph, narrated that whenever a verse was revealed, the Prophet used to call scribes immediately and gave them specific instructions to write it in the sura (chapter) where is was meant to be.

Zaid bin Thabit is reported as mentioned in Sahiah Bukhari, that in the life time of the Prophet ﷺ there were at least four from Ansar of Medina, Abi binKaab, Maadh ibn Jabal, Zaid, and Abu Zaid who had the entire Quran written with them. It is also reported that in Medina Abdullah bin Saeed bin al-As, who was a calligrapher was specially instructed to teach the art of writing the Quran to the citizens of Medina.

In the books of Ahadith, we come across the names of at least 45 more companions who knew how to read and write the Quran. They are (in alphabetical order):

Aban
Abdur Rehman
Abdu Rehman bin Hur bin Umr bin Zaid
Abdulla Saeed bin al As
Abdullah bin Arqam Zahri
Abdullah bin Rawah
Abdullah bin Saad bin Ab Sarh
Abdullah bin Zaid
Abdullah in Abdullah bin Abi Salool
Abu Abas
Abu Bakr
Abu Yunis Maula Ayesha
Ala bin Hadhrami
Ali ibn Talib
Aseed bin hadheer Aus bin Khauli
Ayesha bint Abi bakr
Fatima bin Muhammad
Hafsa bint Umar
Handhala bin Rabi
Hundhala al-Asadi
Jaheem binal Salt
Khalid bin Saeed bin al-As
Khalid bin Walid
Muaqaib bin Fatima
Muawiya bin Abi Safiyan
Mughaira bin Shaaba
Muhammad bin Salma
Munzr bin Umr
Nafe bin Tareeb bin Umr bin Naufal Najiatu Tafawi
Rafe binMalik
Sad bin al Rabee
Sad bin al-As
Sad bin Ibadah
Shahar bin Saad
Sharjeel bin Hasna
Ubi ibn Kaab
Umar bin al-Khattab
Umme Habiba bint Abi Safiyan
Umr bin Al-As
Umr bin Rafe
Usman bin Affan
Zaid bin Thabit
Zubair bin Awwam

Radiyallaho anhum ajmaeen

The Prophet ﷺ was so particular about preserving the Quran in writing that even at the time of his migration from Makkah to Medina, he had a scriber with with him with ink and pen.

The Quran describes itself as a book (kitab), a word that appears 230 times in various contexts.

Even though there are narrations in many books that suggest that the Quran in the form that we have it today was compiled during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr at the insistence of Second Caliph Umar bin al-Khattab and later finalized at the time of third Caliph, Usman bin Affan, the verdict of the Quran about its finalization, preservation, authenticity and compilation is overriding. "We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)." (15:17) "And (moreover) We have guarded them from every evil spirit accursed." (15:17). Or "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. (5:3).

It is obvious that the efforts of the Caliphs were to make copies of the Quran from the original for wider distribution in the Muslim world. It is evident from the writings of Ibn Hazm in his book Kitab ul Fisl that over 100,000 copies of the Quran were present in the entire world at the time of Umar bin Al-Khattab.

The Quran describes itself as a book that proves the commonality of the divine messages previously revealed to earlier prophets that were not preserved in the original form by their followers.

The greatest miracle of the Quran is the consistency of this message evident in all its suras (chapters) and ayas (sentences). The linguistic beauty and style are apparent to only those who understand the language but the clarity and consistency of the message is for everyone regardless of their linguistic skills and they relevant for all times.